What is GERD?
胃反流病是一种疾病，部分消化的食物和天然酸在胃中渗出到 食道胃是将食物和液体从口腔输送到胃的长管. This malfunction happens because the lower esophageal sphincter, which opens into the 胃, 意外地打开足够让胃内容物回到食道, 喉咙, and sometimes mouth. This process can evoke a foul taste. 它还会在消化道产生不舒服的腹胀或灼热感, which are not equipped to handle 胃 acids.
Many people often confuse GERD with 胃酸倒流. Fundamentally, 胃酸倒流 is the same malfunction as GERD. 然而, whereas 胃酸倒流 is a temporary ailment, GERD is chronic, occurring at least twice a week over many consecutive weeks. 它可能不仅仅是由辛辣的食物或压力引起的，如果不加以检查或医学诊断，可能会导致进一步的问题.
What Are GERD Symptoms?
GERD often feels like heartburn, 哪种药会在胸部中部向喉咙方向产生不舒服的烧灼感. Other major symptoms of GERD include:
- Pain swallowing
- Chronic cough
- Loss of appetite
- Persistent vomiting
If these types of symptoms are continual, a gastroenterologist or medical specialist should be consulted.
What Are the Risk Factors for GERD?
Several risk factors are associated with GERD. These include:
- Obesity or being overweight
- Pregnancy and excessive pressure on the abdomen
- Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
患有裂孔疝的人也更容易患胃反流病, 因为内脏容易在腹腔周围移位. These shifts can strain the esophageal sphincter, forcing it open and enabling acid to be released upward. People over 40 years of age are also more prone to developing GERD.
How Is GERD Diagnosed?
GERD can be diagnosed at Bergen Medical Associates in various ways. 在一般情况下, 诊断方法是仔细记录患者的病史，并使用以下医疗工具帮助确定胃食管反流病, ruling out any other conditions. The tools and tests for GERD include:
Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Biopsy
An endoscope or long tube is tracked through the 食道, 胃, and duodenum to examine their status. A tissue biopsy may be taken and tested for signs of GERD.
Upper Gastrointestinal X-Ray Series
两种类型的测试-食管pH值和阻抗测试和无线食管pH值测试-可以帮助检测患者在24至48小时内的pH值水平. In both cases, 一个监测器被插入病人的胃中，用来测量病人的pH值, as she or he eats and sleeps under normal circumstances.
这个测试检查食道将食物送入胃的能力. A small flexible tube is inserted into the nose, 当病人进食时，试管的传感器测量括约肌的力量.
What Are GERD Treatment Options?
有多种非侵入性的方法来治疗胃食管反流并防止其复发. 可以通过改变一些生活方式来降低患这种疾病的可能性或将其影响降至最低. 这些改变可以从调整饮食开始，避免或减少某些食物和饮料的数量, 如:
- Tomato sauces and other acidic sauces
- Garlic and onions
- Alcohol, caffeinated tea, coffee, and carbonated drinks
- Citrus fruits
Avoiding foods and drinks that are spicy, 炸, 高脂肪的, 也建议尽量减少患胃反流症的风险. In addition, patients with GERD can reduce symptoms by:
- Maintaining a healthy weight
- Eating small, more frequent meals
- Ceasing smoking
- Sitting and staying upright while eating and for an hour after
- Wearing clothing that doesn’t tightly hug the waistline
- Raising the head of the bed six to eight inches above the base
胃肠病学家可能建议服用非处方或处方药来缓解胃食管反流症状. These medicines include:
- H-2 receptor blockers
- Proton pump inhibitors
- Other prescription drugs
If these first lines of defense are not working, minimally invasive surgeries, 如腹腔镜抗反流手术或LINX装置植入, may be options. LINX设备是放置在食管下括约肌周围的校准磁铁的小环, to prevent reflux.